The National Movement: Marxism and the National Question

by Joseph Stalin

A nation is not merely a historical category but a historical category belonging to a definite epoch, the epoch of rising capitalism. The process of elimination of feudalism and development of capitalism is at the same time a process of the constitution of people into nations. Such, for instance, was the case in Western Europe. The British, French, Germans, Italians and others were formed into nations at the time of the victorious advance of capitalism and its triumph over feudal disunity.

But the formation of nations in those instances at the same time signified their conversion into independent national states. The British, French and other nations are at the same time British, etc., states. Ireland, which did not participate in this process, does not alter the general picture.

Matters proceeded somewhat differently in Eastern Europe. Whereas in the West nations developed into states, in the East multi-national states were formed, states consisting of several nationalities. Such are Austria-Hungary and Russia. In Austria, the Germans proved to be politically the most developed, and they took it upon themselves to unite the Austrian nationalities into a state. In Hungary, the most adapted for state organization were the Magyars – the core of the Hungarian nationalities – and it was they who united Hungary. In Russia, the uniting of the nationalities was undertaken by the Great Russians, who were headed by a historically formed, powerful and well-organized aristocratic military bureaucracy.

That was how matters proceeded in the East. Continue reading

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Vietnam, Venezuela Sign Co-operation Projects

Nhan Dan

Several Vietnamese and Venezuelan agencies and businesses signed a number of co-operation agreements, contracts and memoranda of understanding at the second session of the Vietnamese-Venezuelan Inter-governmental Committee that concluded in Caracas, Venezuela on April 20.

The second session of the Vietnamese-Venezuelan Inter-governmental Committee 

Under the agreements, Vietnam will supply solar power generating stations, solar powered kettles, public lighting systems, technical assistance and equipment for exploration of the Junin 2 oil field by the joint venture PetroMacareo.

The newly signed contracts also include the expansion of a cultural exchange programme for the 2012 – 2015 period, which will focus on the theatre, cinema and publishing. Continue reading

Ward Imbalance Underrepresents Less Affluent Residents in Hamilton

by John Neary

“While much of the commentary over Hamilton’s ward representation focuses on the urban/suburban split, the more glaring imbalance is in representation by income.”

Much of the recent commentary on the large differences in population between Hamilton wards – or, to put it differently, the large differences in voter representation – has once again focused on the “urban vs. suburban/rural” narrative.

This focus is a shame for several reasons, the first of which is that these divides aren’t as clear as we often think.

Is Ward 13 (Dundas) “suburban”? It’s called the “Valley Town”, not the “Valley Suburb”.

Is Ward 1 “urban” (Strathcona and Kirkendall) or suburban (West Hamilton to the Ancaster border)?

How about Ward 7, which stretches from the mountain brow all the way past Rymal Road?

More importantly, however, this narrative is unhelpful because it distracts from how the current ward system underrepresents our poorest and most vulnerable citizens. Continue reading

Cuban sugar sweetens education for children throughout Laos

Lao News Agency

More than 150,000 pre-primary and primary school students will get a boost of energy every day to help them concentrate better on their studies, thanks to a contribution from Cuba of more than 180 metric tons of sugar to the United Nations World Food Programme.

The sugar will be mixed in to a nutritious daily mid-morning snack dumplings made from a blend of corn and soy – for school students in rural areas throughout six provinces in the far north and south of Laos, according to yesterday press release of the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP).

The Cuban donation was made possible thanks to a private citizen of Japan, who funded the shipment from Cuba to Laos. In a statement, he expressed his hope that his contribution will play a small part in making the world a better place. Continue reading

Developments in Socialist Countries: Draft Ideological Resolution of the Communist Party of India (Marxist)

6.1   In present-day realities, when the international correlation of class forces has moved in favour of imperialism, the existing socialist countries have embarked on a course of economic reforms to meet the challenges posed by international finance capital-led and driven globalization. With liberalization sucking all countries of the world into its vortex, these reforms are based on the integration of their economies with the international market. The manner in which these countries are meeting those challenges, in this period of transition, is an issue that requires serious examination.

6.2   Is this process of reforms resulting in the negation of socialism as measured by the people’s ownership of the means of production and the social appropriation of surplus as against the individual appropriation of it? In all these countries, negative tendencies have surfaced during the reform process like rapid widening of economic inequalities, corruption, nepotism etc. These have not only been noted by the ruling Communist parties themselves but visible efforts are there to tackle, contain and correct them. The main question that arises is: is this process of reforms leading to the emergence of an exploitative capitalist class that develops the potential to lead and succeed in a counter revolution in the future? Or, whether this process of correlation of these forces under current reforms, in today’s world realities, will lead to the consolidation and further strengthening of socialism? Continue reading

Sample Resolutions from the XX Congress of the Communist Party of India (Marxist)

Resolution on Violence against Women

This 20th Congress of the CPI(M) expresses deep concern over the steep escalation in crimes against women, and is alarmed by the barbarity and savagery of the atrocities being committed at a time when women are entering public life, institutions of learning, and diverse work spheres in increasing numbers. The crude commodification of women and the portrayal of women as sex objects in the mass media is highly objectionable and is not only demeaning to women but creates an environment which trivialises the crime of sexual harassment and violence against women. Continue reading

Sample Resolutions from the XXI Congress of the Communist Party of India

Resolution on Agriculture and Farmers’ Plight  

The 21st Congress of the CPI expresses its anguish and deep concern over the anti-people measures pursued by the Government in the centre and the states as well across the country with regards to agriculture sector and farmers community.

While Indian agriculture scenario is becoming gloomy day by day and around 70% of the population engaged in this sector are facing severe economic crisis resulting in the incidents of suicides committed by more than 2.5 lakh farmers, the governments are mostly reluctant to address the genuine problem rather becoming rhetoric and mostly undertaking the measures which lead to more pauperization. Continue reading